Let's be blunt: writers add notation -- often called references -- to their books and articles to give credit where credit is due. (So don't start that paper on the French Revolution with the words, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times..." unless you're prepared to mention that a Mr. Dickens wrote them first!) At Oak Hill High School , most teachers require that you use internal notes, rather than footnotes, to get this job done.
Internal notes are pointers; they specify a page number, when there is one, and contain just enough information about a source to "point" to its bibliography listing. One without the other makes no sense: internal notes and bibliographies work together.
Internal notes are placed in the body of your text, instead of at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). The generic form is
(source date p.#)
- Use parentheses, and no punctuation but the period after the p!
- 90% of the time the source will be the author's last name, and the date will be the date of publication.
- The p.# refers to the exact page or pages where you saw the information.
- Omit page numbers when referencing multi-volume encyclopedias.
- And non-print media have no pages -- just use (source date)
At the high school level, teachers usually ask students to note sources for all significant information that is new to them. In addition, always note:
|Source||Text with Notation||Matching Bibliography Entry|
|BOOK with 1 Author||"There was something about the style of the writing that bothered her. It wasn't smooth." (Zindel 1976 p.86)||Zindel, Paul. Pardon Me, You're Stepping On My Eyeball. NY: Harper & Row, 1976.|
|BOOK with 2 Authors||Stephen Hawking is probably the greatest scientist since Einstein (White & Gribbin 1992 p. 3) and he will surely...||White, Michael, and John Gribbin. Stephen Hawking; A Life In Science. NY: Dutton, 1992.|
|ENCYCLOPEDIA Article, Signed||The Bronte sisters didn't have any friends. (Watt, 1989)||Watt, Ian. "Bronte Sisters." World Book Encyclopedia. IL: World Book, 1989.|
|ENCYCLOPEDIA Article, Unsigned||"More than 2 million [violet] flowers are needed to yield about half a kilogram of the oils." (Violet 1987)||"Violet." Academic American Encyclopedia. CT: Grolier, 1987.|
|MAGAZINE Article||"The Vietnam War was a conflict in which it was never clear where the enemy was: a conflict without a reliable border...." (Grunwald 1992 p.29)||Grunwald, Lisa. "Facing the Wall: Ten Years After the Dedication of the Vietnam Memorial." Life. November, 1992.|
|In Southern California, you can go to jail just for putting a few shrimps on the barby! And buses are fined for idling too long at the curb. (Boly 1992 p.57)||Boly, William. "Smog City Wants to Make This Perfectly Clear." Health. April, 1992. In SIRS Pollution, v. 5 #44.|
|NON-PRINT Media||"They rolled their eyes toward the advancing battle as they stood awaiting the shock. Some shrank and flinched. They stood as men tied to stakes." (Crane 1976)||Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. [Audiocassette] NY: Listening Library, 1976.|
|"More than 2 million [violet] flowers are needed to yield about half a kilogram of the oils." (Violet 1991)||"Violet." Grolier's Electronic Encyclopedia. [CD-ROM] CT: Academic American, 1991.|
HOT TIP: Many of these examples come from Kate Turabian's book, A Manual for Writers (REF 808 TUR) and the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual (REF 808.02 PUB). Check them out!