SECOND YEAR BIOLOGY

 

GRADE LEVELS: 11-12

 

UNIT: 4

 

SUGGESTED TIME FRAME: 6 weeks

 

TEXTBOOK REFERENCES: Ch. 9, 11, and 12

 

CONTENT OUTLINE:

    1. Genetics

                                                              i.      Pea plant lab

                                                            ii.      Electrophorysis lab

                                                          iii.      Fruit fly lab

 

STANDARDS TO BE EMPHASIZED:

                  B.1.1         Recognize that and explain how the many cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. Understand that different parts of the genetic instructions are used in different types of cells and are influenced by the cell’s environment and past history.

                  B.1.3         Know and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, protein building, waste disposal, information feedback, and movement. In addition to these basic cellular functions common to all cells, understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.

                  B.1.4         Understand and describe that the work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

                  B.1.8         Understand and describe that all growth and development is a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence. Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.

                  B.1.9         Recognize and describe that both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds, such as those in ATP.

                  B.1.11       Describe that through biogenesis all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.

                  B.1.21       Understand and explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.

                  B.1.22       Understand and explain the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.

                  B.1.23       Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it, and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment.

                  B.1.24       Explain that gene mutations can be caused by such things as radiation and chemicals. Understand that when they occur in sex cells, the mutations can be passed on to offspring; if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only.

                  B.1.25       Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.

                  B.1.32       Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for survival in particular environments, and discuss how natural selection provides scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

                  B.1.35       Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA sequences, which often closely matches their classification based on anatomical similarities. Know that amino acid similarities also provide clues to this kinship.

                  B.1.36       Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of sub-populations

                  B.2.2         Explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring. Note that some of these characteristics were advantageous in surviving and reproducing. Understand that the offspring would also inherit and pass on those advantages, and over generations the aggregation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.

 

PROJECTS:

 

Pea plant lab: Students raise pea plants and do dihybrid fertilization exactly like Gregor Mendal the father of modern genetics. (continued from unit #3)

 

Electrophoryesis lab: students take their own DNA from cheek cells and separate it out by eletrophoryesis machines so they can karyotype their own chromosomal patterns.

 

Fruit Fly lab:  Students raise their own vile of fruit flies and try to produce genetically identical flies.

 

 

ASSESSMENT SUGGESTIONS:Assessment techniques include the following:

Pre-post test

Chapter quizzes half-way through units to see if material is being received well.

Chapter tests

Unit finals used instead of semester finals

 

SUGGESTIONS FOR INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY (for students):

Internet based research

Virtual field trips

Power point presentations

Webpage designs

 

SUGGESTIONS FOR INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY (for teachers):

DVD presentations

Virtual web projects

Power point with video clips

Use of projection LCD

Computer

Live video conferencing

 

SUGGESTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION

 

Videos to stress à Auditory

Projects to stress à Touch and Tactile

Power Point to stress à visual

 

Assessment should be designed to encompass all three.

 

 

      Notes . . .